Mary Louisa Kauss
1905 (aged 41–42)
Prospect Lawn Cemetery
Hamburg, Erie County, New York, USA Add to Map
113374239 · View Source
James Lewis Dean
Groom's Name: James Lewis Dean
Groom's Birth Date:
Bride's Name: Anna A. Lehr
Bride's Birth Date:
Marriage Date: 05 May 1913
Marriage Place: Indianapolis, Marion, Indiana
Groom's Father's Name: James Lewis Dean
Groom's Mother's Name: Matilda Turpin
Bride's Father's Name: John E. Cordell
Bride's Mother's Name: Jennie Kent
Groom's Marital Status:
Groom's Previous Wife's Name:
Bride's Marital Status:
Bride's Previous Husband's Name:
Indexing Project (Batch) Number: M01307-8
System Origin: Indiana-EASy
Source Film Number: 499400
Reference Number: Pg. 664
"Indiana, Marriages, 1780-1992," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/XF8W-YNQ : accessed 18 Aug 2012), Matilda Turpin in entry for James Lewis Dean and Anna A. Lehr, 05 May 1913; citing reference Pg. 664, FHL microfilm 499400.
Pension Records shows Matilda Dean widowed on 12 Jun 1877.
Name: Matilda Turpin
Event Date: 1850
Event Place: Jessamine county, part of, Jessamine, Kentucky, United States
Estimated Birth Year: 1836
Dwelling House Number: 149
Family Number: 149
Line Number: 17
NARA Publication Number: M432
NARA Roll Number: 208
Film Number: 442976
Digital Folder Number: 004192498
Image Number: 00100
Household Gender Age Birthplace
D* Turpin M 52 Kentucky
Sarah Turpin F 37 Kentucky
Mary J Turpin F 15 Kentucky
Matilda Turpin F 14 Kentucky
Wm M Turpin M 12 Kentucky
Turpin M 10 Kentucky
Tho J Turpin M 9 Kentucky
"United States Census, 1850," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/M65Z-7H3 : accessed 11 Aug 2012), Matilda Turpin in household of D* Turpin, Jessamine county, part of, Jessamine, Kentucky, United States; citing dwelling 149, family 149, NARA microfilm publication M432, roll 208.
Frederic Goldstein Oppenheimer
Birth: May 26, 1881
Death: Oct. 31, 1963
. . . . . . . . . .
Frederic Goldstein Oppenheimer, businessman, physician, and art collector, was born in San Antonio, Texas, on May 26, 1881, one of seven children of Louisa (Goldstein) and Daniel Oppenheimer. He attended the University of Texas and then Columbia University, where he graduated in 1902. He graduated with a medical education from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in 1906. Afterwards he practiced medicine in New York City and worked at Mount Sinai Hospital before returning to San Antonio in 1921. He married Lucille Joske, and they had two children. Shortly before his father-in-law, Alexander Joske, died in 1925, Dr. Oppenheimer left his medical practice to manage Joske's Department Store, which he sold in 1929 to Hahn Department Stores. Frederic and Lucille Oppenheimer became international art collectors. For many years they had a private seven-room museum of art in an addition to their home. They had built the house in 1921, and they added the wing around 1930 or 1931. They donated numerous paintings of the Hudson River School to the San Antonio Art League and the Witte Museum and donated parts of their collection to the Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute. Their paintings are housed in a wing of the McNay Museum bearing their name. The Oppenheimer Collection includes Flemish, Impressionist, Medieval, and Renaissance paintings, as well as sculptures and room panelings. Their son Alexander and his family donated funds for a Boy Scout home and home for wayward girls. Frederic Oppenheimer died in San Antonio on October 31, 1963, and was buried in Temple Beth-El Cemetery. [bio info from tshaonline.org]
JOSKE'S. Joske's, formerly also known as J. Joske, Joske Brothers, and J. Joske and Sons, now a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dillard Department Stores, Incorporated, was headquartered in San Antonio and once owned twenty-six retail stores in Texas and one in Phoenix, Arizona. Julius Joske, who immigrated to Texas from Germany in 1867, chose San Antonio as his home because of its access to Texas military installations, Indian areas, and Mexico. The choice was a strategic one; San Antonio was an important marketplace that supplied the outlying military posts with inventory and served as a trade link with Mexico. Joske's first store, located on Main Plaza in San Antonio and known as J. Joske, opened in 1867 and operated until 1873, when Joske sold it and went back to Berlin for his family. He returned to the Alamo City later that same year and with the help of his sons Siegfried, Albert, and Alexander opened a new store called J. Joske and Sons in a small adobe house close to the United States Army corral.
After two years the family moved the store to Alamo Plaza, not far from the Grand Opera House, and changed its name to Joske Brothers. In 1878 the operation expanded its space and added women's merchandise, and in 1887 the store moved to an even bigger facility at the corner of Alamo and Commerce streets. Joske's personnel grew from three to thirty-five at a time when San Antonio's population was 25,000.
In 1903 Alexander Joske purchased his father's and brothers' interest in the company, and in 1909 he once again expanded both the Commerce Street location and its product line. At the time, the store's merchandise was primarily for men and boys; the expansion increased the piece-goods department so ladies could have dresses made in the store after selecting patterns and materials. The Commerce Street expansion added elevators and new floors, and established customer-service departments, delivery services, and promotional gimmicks to attract public attention. One such promotion was a 3,000 candle-power searchlight used to highlight the store; in 1922 the light was used to guide Lt. James H. Doolittle of Kelly Field to a safe landing.
After Alexander Joske died, Dr. Frederic Goldstein Oppenheimer, Alexander's son-in-law, became the firm's president in 1925. Four years later Hahn Department Stores purchased Joske's, and in 1932 it was taken over by Allied Store Corporation. James H. Calvert went to San Antonio from Boston to assume the presidency of Joske's of Texas and held the position until he retired in 1964. Calvert, an English native, had been an officer of the Royal Flying Corps in World War I and went to Boston in 1920 to learn about department stores. Before coming to Joske's, he had been a merchandise manager for Jordan Marsh, an Allied Store affiliate and one of the largest and oldest stores in New England.
At the time, Joske's Commerce Street location was on the fringe of the business district. Calvert resisted opening new locations downtown and expanding the store to the suburbs, deciding instead to let customers come to the Alamo Plaza location. He also spearheaded the acquisition of such additional properties as the Plaza Theater and the rest of the Joske square block (excluding St. Joseph's Church, sometimes jokingly called St. Joske's) in order to increase the size of the store and alleviate parking problems. Calvert instigated two major expansion projects: the addition that made Joske's the first completely air-conditioned store in Texas, and an addition of 100,000 square feet after the Conroy building on Alamo Street had been torn down in 1939. Joske's eventually added equivalent warehouse space in 1946, and a 1953 building program doubled the store's size to 551,000 square feet and added parking spaces to make twenty acres of parking. While the main store increased in size, the chain spread as well. In 1957 a Las Palmas store location opened to serve the western and southwestern sections of San Antonio; in 1965 the firm purchased Wolff and Marx (subsequently sold in 1968) with its North Star Mall branch; in 1969 Joske's opened a store under its own name in North Star Mall; and in 1971 Joske's opened a branch in Austin.
After Calvert retired in 1964, J. H. Morse took over the presidency, while Calvert remained chairman of the board. Morse, who joined Joske's in 1935 and had been a vice president since 1938, was responsible for beautification efforts at the city's HemisFair '68 grounds. After his retirement in 1968 he was succeeded by M. H. "Pat" Segner and then by the firm's first native Texas president, William W. McCormick, a graduate of Southern Methodist University, who, like Segner, began his career with the Allied Store Company.
Eventually, Allied Store Corporation changed the names of its Tiche-Goettinger stores in Dallas to Joske's, making a total of twenty-seven outlets in Texas. In late 1986 the Campeau Corporation of Toronto, Canada, purchased Allied Stores Corporation, and in 1987 Dillard's Department Stores of Little Rock, Arkansas, bought the Joske operation from Campeau. All of the Joske stores were henceforth called Dillard's.
Throughout its history the Joske's chain remained an innovator in the retail industry by developing new approaches to advertising and product development. Alexander Joske, for example, often bought advertising space in the San Antonio dailies, in which he publicly expressed his thoughts. In one such article, he denied a rumor that he had discharged employees because they had voted a certain way in an election. Known as "the biggest store in the biggest state," Joske's was locally identified with its store sign depicting a cowboy on a horse chasing a running steer, designed by A. H. Cadwallader.
In response to a shortage of newspaper advertising caused by a postwar rationing of newsprint, the chain cosponsored the first definitive study of radio and television advertising. Joske's opened a 500-seat auditorium for civic-group meetings and special events and established the Camelia Award, for which the company commissioned original works of art by state and local artists to present annually to an outstanding fashion designer. In the community, Joske's is credited with introducing the nation's first teen-age beauty pageant, teen advisory boards, charity benefits, art exhibitions, Christmas events, Boy Scout activities, and Mexican-American trade and heritage events. Works of art collected by Frederic Joske Oppenheimer and his wife can be found in various Texas art museums.
Natalie Ornish, Pioneer Jewish Texans (Dallas: Texas Heritage, 1989). Sam Woolford, San Antonio: A History for Tomorrow (San Antonio: Naylor, 1963).
Harold Frank Joske
Drowned in the Guadalupe River, New Braunfels, Texas.
JOSKE, JULIUS (1825–1909). Julius Joske, the founder of Joskeqv's department store, once "the largest store in the largest state," was born in Birnbaum, East Prussia, in 1825, the son of Abraham and Rebecca Joske. His family later moved to Berlin. Julius emigrated from Germany to San Antonio in 1867 and established his first store on Military Plaza. He wanted to be near the supply depot that served military installations in Texas, Indian Territory, and Mexico. Before the railroads reached San Antonio, the store received its merchandise by freight from Indianola, Galveston, and Corpus Christi. For six years Joske accumulated money before selling the business and in 1873 returning to Germany to close his house there. He brought his wife, the former Henriette Wolfsohn, and five children to San Antonio later in the year and reestablished his business in a small adobe house on Austin Street. After Albert and Alexander Joske entered the firm, it was renamed J. Joske and Sons. Two years later Joske moved to Alamo Plaza across from the Menger Hotel site, and later to a larger site on the plaza. After his retirement in 1883 the firm came to be known as Joske Brothers, and in 1903 Alexander Joske purchased the interests of his father and brother. At the time Joske's featured fans, parasols, and corsets, in addition to military and outdoor equipment. Julius Joske died in 1909.
Ellis A. Davis and Edwin H. Grobe, comps., The New Encyclopedia of Texas, 4-vol. edition. Natalie Ornish, Pioneer Jewish Texans (Dallas: Texas Heritage, 1989). Ruthe Winegarten and Cathy Schechter, Deep in the Heart: The Lives and Legends of Texas Jews (Austin: Eakin Press, 1990).
Diana J. Kleiner
Julius Joske, the founder of Joske's department store, once "the largest store in the largest state," arrived in San Antonio, from Germany in 1867 and established his first store on Military Plaza. He wanted to be near the supply depot that served military installations in Texas, Indian Territory, and Mexico. Before the railroads reached San Antonio, the store received its merchandise by freight from Indianola, Galveston, and Corpus Christi.
For six years Joske accumulated money before selling the business and in 1873 returning to Germany to close his house there. He brought his wife and five children to San Antonio later in the year and reestablished his business in a small adobe house on Austin Street. After Albert and Alexander Joske entered the firm, it was renamed J. Joske and Sons. Two years later Joske moved to Alamo Plaza across from the Menger Hotel site, and later to a larger site on the plaza. After his retirement in 1883 the firm came to be known as Joske Brothers, and in 1903 Alexander Joske purchased the interests of his father and brother. At the time Joske's featured fans, parasols, and corsets, in addition to military and outdoor equipment.
Today the Joske's Building is the River Center Mall part that houses Dillards.
Ellis A. Davis and Edwin H. Grobe, comps., The New Encyclopedia of Texas,4-vol. edition. Natalie Ornish, Pioneer Jewish Texans (Dallas: Texas Heritage,1989).
Ruthe Winegarten and Cathy Schechter, Deep in the Heart: The Lives and Legends of Texas Jews (Austin: Eakin Press, 1990).
Joske’s Brothers Store: The First Fifty Years
By Amy Alves
Julius Joske, a German Jew, came to San Antonio in 1869 at the age of forty-four seeking a place to raise his family without fear of religious or ethnic persecution. He had learned commercial skills running his own store and from his wife’s family, prominent Prussian merchants named Wolfson. He and his wife Henrietta settled in San Antonio because her two brothers, Leon and Sol Wolfson, had ties to the area. They had come to the United States before the Civil War, and during the war, Sol Wolfson served in the Union Army while Leon Wolfson ran a store in Mexico. After the war the brothers reunited and opened a store in Gonzales, Texas, but when they got word that Joske planned to emigrate to Texas, the brothers moved to San Antonio and opened a dry goods store on the Main Plaza at the corner of Acequia Street. When Joske arrived in spring 1869 he too opened a store on the plaza, the business center of San Antonio.
Business flourished, and within just a few years J. Joske Dry Goods was such a popular store that Joske decided to bring his family to San Antonio, and at the beginning of 1873, he liquidated his stock and returned to Germany. In May, he arrived in New York with his wife and their five children, three sons and two daughters. His sons, Alexander and Albert Joske, went on to San Antonio, where they went to work in their uncles’ store. By that time Wolfson’s had become the largest dry goods store in town and two boys not only earned money but learned about the retail market of the southwestern United States.
Julius Joske returned to San Antonio in early 1874 and reopened his store. But instead of the plaza location, he opened the store northeast of downtown, off Austin Street at a location known as “Henry Bitter’s Place,” in the vicinity of the military supply depot at the Alamo and the government corral on Losoya St. The store’s proximity to the military establishment encouraged Joske to target merchandise to government employees and teamsters, and they became loyal customers.
At the family enterprise, the three sons stocked shelves, kept the store neat, and helped customers. Julius Joske managed the store and the ordered stock which came to town by covered wagon or, starting in 1877, by rail. At times he took one son in a covered wagon full of merchandise to sell to people on the outskirts of town.
By the end of the first year in business, J. Joske’s had grown into a successful store and needed more room but the building would not work for expansion. So at the beginning of 1875 Joske’s moved to a location on Alamo Street at Alamo Plaza. Other than being larger the plain building had no distinguishable architectural characteristics, but with the move came another name change from “J. Joske Dry Goods” to “Joske and Sons Dry Goods.”
When Joske’s moved to Alamo Plaza, it had sparse yet growing business activity with eight saloons, the Menger Hotel, Dreiss Drug Store, Beisenback Hardware Company, and a lumberyard and shoe stores nearby. Yet growth in central San Antonio soon affected Joske’s by increasing competition and by the expanding the customer base. Four major dry goods competitors opened in Alamo Plaza, with more in other parts of the city. Honore Grenet influenced Joske’s more than any other with his store in the Mission San Antonio de Valero convento, where he also had a museum in memory of the Alamo defenders. Despite the competition, the Joske family and Grenet developed close relationships and the Joske boys and their father learned a great deal from Grenet, like advertising techniques and how to make effective display windows.
In 1877, Joske’s location near the new GH&SA train depot, the busy Menger Hotel, and the new Alamo Plaza Post Office helped increase customer traffic. Joske’s responded with new departments and an increase in specialty merchandise, especially notions and fine fabrics for women’s clothing. One distinctive change that came to Joske’s during this time was the introduction of the bargain bin. The popular bargain bin was in a separate section of the store and offered clearance and sale items for five and ten cents. Aside from helping sell merchandise quickly, it targeted people with limited resources. By the beginning of the 1880s Joske’s had clearly begun to make the transition from dry goods store to department store, and physically, to keep up with an increase in clientele, the store expanded west towards Losoya Street.
The 1880s brought several changes to the commercial environment that faced Joske’s. For instance, to encourage industrial growth the city council in 1881 “passed an ordinance giving a ten year exemption from municipal taxes to all industries established in San Antonio during a three year period.” In June 1881, telephone service began in the downtown area, and by 1884 long distance service began, and Joske’s had a vital link to customers and merchandise suppliers. In 1883, Lucchese Boot and Shoe Company opened, giving Joske’s stiff competition in those lines of merchandise. More important, Julius Joske retired from running the store that year and returned to Germany with his wife keeping his ownership stake as his sons took over management, with Alexander Joske serving as president. To stay competitive with other stores in San Antonio and to continue meeting the needs of its clientele, Joske’s hired a resident buyer in New York City, a move that allowed the store to provide customers both the latest high end fashions as well as bargains.
Sales rose. Joske Brothers once again outgrew its building, and the brothers planned a new store. They built their new facility, which would be referred to as “The Big Store,” at the corner of East Commerce and Alamo streets, a prime spot in San Antonio, diagonal from the San Antonio Opera House and just west of St. Joseph’s Catholic Church. Local architects James Wahrenberger and Albert Felix Beckman designed the structure with two floors and a basement, each 150 by 240 feet, and Joske’s announced the building would “accommodate our rapidly increasing trade [with] a commodious and magnificent store house, larger than any in Texas.” The Big Store would include architectural design elements in granite and brick, as well as limestone from local quarries. In January 1887 they advertised a clearance sale to get reduce merchandise inventory. The new store opened in September 1888 with the first floor and basement for selling merchandise while the second floor had offices and storage.
With the retailing challenges of maintaining customer traffic and providing reasonable prices, Joske’s decided that an innovative use of the penny could help in both efforts. At the time, Texas and most of the Southwest retailers did not use one-cent pricing increments. Pennies did not circulate in these markets, so businesses priced merchandise in multiples of five. The Joske brothers felt that the lack of pennies in the market caused higher prices and was an injustice to customers; they felt that an attempt to change the situation might bring benefits to their customers and their sales ledgers alike. Thus, Joske’s made a special order for a supply of pennies from the United States Mint, received them through the San Antonio National Bank, and changed its lowest prices. Then on December 16,1886, Joske Brothers announced in the San Antonio Light that they had “decided to do away with the five cent nickel as the lowest standard of value in their store.” The one-cent plan let Joske’s proclaim in its ads that it had the lowest prices on a variety of merchandise. Throughout most of 1887 Joske’s ads reminded its customers of the store’s penny prices, while other dry goods stores and businesses were unable to match the Joske strategy before 1890.
By the last decade of the nineteenth century, Joske’s was at the center of San Antonio’s rapid development. Expanding the width of the store proved the best way to deal with the necessity of expanding the number of departments and the stock of merchandise at the store. Architects Alfred Giles and Henri Guindon designed a store expansion from 150 by 240 feet to 174 by 240 feet, and had workmen construct a 300-foot store front and gave it a striped effect in brick and stone. Additionally, they designed a framed arch to the Commerce Street facade and a turret and parasol shaped roof to the entrance. Such architectural elements conveyed English sensibilities, concepts that influenced Giles after his 1885 trip to England.
Joske’s expansion and remodeling coincided with a series of public improvements that came to the downtown area beginning in 1890. For instance, electric-powered streetcars replaced the original mule-drawn cars and made it easier for people to ride from residential neighborhoods to the business district. The city installed gas street lamps at various places where people gathered, such as Alamo Plaza, and that allowed people to stay out later in the evenings, encouraging stores like Joske’s to extend store hours.
At the turn of the century, San Antonio was the largest city in Texas and Joske’s was not only the largest department store in the state but the largest store southwest of the Mississippi River. The store served a varied and increasingly affluent clientele, while tourism increased with the popularity of Hot Well Springs and expanded military missions at Fort Sam Houston. A downtown building boom in hotels and businesses paralleled the growth of visitors.
It was during this boom that Joske’s management changed. In 1903 Alexander Joske bought his father’s interest as well as his brother’s, and he became the sole owner. Albert Joske nevertheless continued working at the store until his retirement in 1910, and his presence prompted Alexander Joske to change his store’s name to “Joske Brothers Company.” But that was only a name; Alexander Joske, as sole authority, proved to be an energetic and aggressive businessman. He undertook another expansion project in 1909, adding two floors to his store, elevators, and built another thirty feet east toward St. Joseph’s Catholic Church. With the construction, Joske Brothers occupied all the property on the Alamo Street side of the block, with the exception of the Plaza Theater.
During the 1910s and 1920s, growth in San Antonio and at Joske’s went hand in hand, but several Joske’s employees saw an opportunity to take the skills they learned working at the store and begin their own companies. W. C. Frost was one such employee who, with his brother J. M. Frost, opened Frost Brothers at 221 East Houston Street In 1917. Unlike Joske’s, Frost Brothers focused exclusively on the upscale ladies’ ready-to-wear market but Joske’s management nonetheless saw Frost Brothers. as a competitor.
That was one of many stores in the 1920s that gave Joske’s a run for its money, because three national chain stores opened in San Antonio during this time, too: J. C. Penney in 1921 and Sears Roebuck Company and Montgomery Ward’s in 1929. Wolf and Marx Company, was now a thriving department store and was located across from Joske’s on Alamo Street. The location of the department stores in downtown San Antonio created a shopping and fashion district along Houston Street much like the one Lord and Taylor had created in New York City.
Since many of the new stores starting up in San Antonio sold women’s fashions, Joske’s opened a dress shop on the second floor for women who wanted to select fabrics and have dresses made by a French dressmaker. Such custom dresses targeted upper-class women, especially Frost Brothers shoppers. To get the attention of middle and working-class women the women’s clothing line was expanded along with the notions department.
The increased competition of the 1920s moved Joske’s to undertake more aggressive efforts to develop its staff. Management sent employees to the East Coast to work in a national chain where they learned about store operations and organization. Alexander Joske also made sure that his store kept the feel of a family run store by working on the sales floor himself to ensure people’s experience at Joske’s was a pleasant one. He willingly took the salesman’s role to make sure customers found the items they were looking for and bought them. Joske’s also competed through involvement in the community through event sponsorship. To highlight the upcoming fashion season, Joske’s hosted fashion shows at local hotels and theaters targeted to upper-class women and teenage girls. The shows helped to put San Antonio in the fashion spotlight because fashion designers from New York attended.
Then in 1923, Joske’s reached a milestone with its golden anniversary, and publicized that it was the only department store or dry goods store in San Antonio to operate for fifty consecutive years. The store celebrated its unparalleled retail success in the region based having the largest selection of merchandise in Texas and the largest floor space of any retail store in the entire Southwest. “In relation to its volume of business to the population of its trade territory, it was one of the largest stores in the country.”
However, the second half of the 1920s brought loss, sorrow and many changes to the Big Store. In the summer of 1925, Alexander Joske took ill, apparently suffering a nervous breakdown. Friends and family, including his son-in-law Dr. Fredrick G. Oppenheimer, a local pediatrician, encouraged him to rest, but he would not relax his efforts and continued to work many long hours at the store. His condition did not change, and on Wednesday evening, July 8, 1925, alone in the upstairs of his mansion on King William St., Joske shot himself. A servant found him dead with a bullet wound in his side.
Alexander Joske’s death shocked the city and retailers state-wide. In mourning, Mayor John W. Tobin honored the merchant and community leader and ordered city flags flown at half–mast. Joske Brothers Company closed for two days, while throughout the Southwest people remembered Joske as a pioneer merchant who had played a key role in the transforming Texas retailing industry by leading the change from dry goods stores of the last century to the modern department store of the twentieth century.
According to the ship records Julius Joske left from the port of Hamburg and arrived at New Orleans on 31 March 1869. Since he arrived in New Orleans at the end of March, he probably did not make it to San Antonio until the end of April or beginning of May.
Ira A. Glazier and P. William Filby, German to America List of Passengers Arriving to U.S. Ports (Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1991), 253 – 54; Historical and Descriptive Review of the Industries of San Antonio, 1885 (San Antonio: Land Thompson, 1885), 84 – 86; San Antonio Light, 15 July 1923; France Kallison, “100 Years of Jewery in San Antonio” (Master’s thesis, Trinity University, San Antonio, 1977), 29.
“Alexander Joske Pioneer Merchant, Patriotic Merchant, Civic Publicist” The Pioneer Magazine of Texas, October 1928, 8 – 10; Light, 17 June 1923 and 15 June 1923.
Lois Wood Burkhalter, “The Enjoyable Joske Story, 1873 – 1973: Centennial Celebration,” Special Section, 3, San Antonio Light, 15 April 1973; San Antonio Express, 7 October 1923.
Express, 7 October 1923; Cecilia Steinfiedlt, San Antonio Was: Seen Through a Magic Lantern: Views from the Slide Collection of Albert Stevens (San Antonio: San Antonio Museum Association, 1978), 177.
Express, 7 October 1923. Richard R. Flores, Remembering the Alamo: memory, modernity, and the master symbol ( Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002) p. 52.
Retail expansion also took place beyond Alamo Plaza. In 1877 the dry goods store A.A. Wolf, later known as Wolf and Marx Company was established along West Commerce Street. By the 1880s Wolf and Marx Company had become Joske’s major competitor. Steinfiedlt, 28 – 30, Light, 17 June 1923.
House, City of Flaming Adventure, 196.
Ibid.; Marianne Odom and Gaylon Finklea Young, The Businesses That Built San Antonio (San Antonio: Living Legacies, 1985), 54 – 55.
Odom, The Businesses That Built, 58 – 61.
Burkhalter, “The Enjoyable Joske Story,” 5.
Andrew Morrison, ed, Historic San Antonio (San Antonio: The Metropolitan Publishing Company, 1887), 89; Mary Carolyn Holler Juston, “An English Architect in Texas: Alfred Giles: 1853 – 1920” (Master’s thesis, University of Texas, Austin, 1970), 183 – 184.
Light, December 16, 1886.
Ibid., 6 August 1887 – 4 October 1887; WOAI Business Weekly, 1 February 1993; Express, 9 September 1917.
Express, 8 September 1889; Juston, Alfred Giles, 100 – 101, 184 – 186.
Pearson Newcomb, The Alamo City (San Antonio: Pearson Newcomb, 1926), 112; San Antonio Remembered Downtown, DVD (KLRN – TV: Alamo Public Telecommunications Council, 1996).
Lewis F. Fisher, Saving San Antonio, The Precarious Preservation of a Heritage (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1996), 52.
Burkhalter, “The Enjoyable Joske Story,” 5.
Texas Jewish Historical Society Records, University of Texas at Austin, Box 3A168, Folder 5; Odom, The Businesses, 70 – 71.
Mary E. Livingston, San Antonio in the 1920s and 1930s (Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2000), 101 – 117; Jules Appler, Jules A. Appler Directory and General Directory and Householder Directory of Greater San Antonio 1924 – 1925 (San Antonio: Jules A. Appler, 1925).
Burkhalter, “The Enjoyable Joske Story,” 5.
Ibid.; San Antonio Remembered Downtown, DVD (KLRN – TV: Alamo Public Telecommunications Council, 1996).
Burkhalter, “The Enjoyable Joske Story,” 5.
Ibid., Light, 7 October 1923.
Light, 9 July 1925; Express, 9 July 1925.
Light, 9 July 1925; Express, 9 July 1925, 10 July 1925, and 11 July 1925.